... acknowledge1
By acknowledge, I mean give a statement something like, ``I used our textbook, my introductory physics textbook (Halliday and Resnick, Fundamentals of Physics, Wiley, 2000), and I also consulted with my classmate Throckmorton in compiling these definitions.''
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... here?2
There are frequencies at which $S$ is not particularly helpful in finding $L$ or $R$. Make sure you address this issue.
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... find3
Capacitors of this magnitude a are typically electrolytic. Electrolytic capacitors are polar. That is, they should only be subjected to potential differences in one direction. Otherwise, an electrochemical reaction can occur that degrades the insulating material separating the electrodes. An electrolytic capacitor is usually marked with a band at its positive end.
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... simulations.4
Take care in setting up your simulations. There are fewer unique nodes in this circuit than you might think. Also, you may find it easier to ``measure'' the ripple voltage at time values beyond the initial time interval in which the filter capacitor is charging.
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... 1 mA.5
It turns out that this current is linked to the output impedance of the circuit and is therefore determined by the load we plan to drive. We are not concerned with a particular load, so we make an arbitrary choice here.
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... capacitor.6
One can also split the emitter resistor and bypass only part of it in order to maintain the stability of the DC operating point afforded by $R_E >>
r_e$ while providing higher gain at signal frequencies.
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.... 7
The intrinsic resistance of the emitter $r_e$ is the only reason $A_v$ is not exactly one.
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... analysis.8
The transient analysis is clever in that it adjusts its time step size dynamically. That is, if voltages are varying rapidly, it uses an appropriately small step size, but when things are smooth, it adjusts to a longer step size. The transition between states in this circuit is so rapid that Spice gets itself stuck. It gives the error
doAnalyses: Timestep too small
because it has reduced its step size below an acceptable limit, and it is unable to recover. The DC sweep analysis does not have this problem, because it performs DC operating point analyses at discrete voltage values instead of using a variable step size.
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