Oxford, Bodleian Manuscript 343


Ker 310. A twelfth century manuscript measuring 12 3/4 X 8 7/8", containing a large number of homilies, principally by Ælfric, as well as Ælfric's two pastoral letters for Wulfstan. There are six of Wulfstan's homilies. Bethurum notes that although the manuscript contains many Middle English forms, it "retains in many cases authoritative readings not found elsewhere, and sometimes the emendations of the...scribe clarify Wulfstan's sentence structure, which is often very complex" (5). The Wulfstan homilies in the manuscript are as follows:


141b
SECUNDUM MARCUM ;·
Interrogatus iesus a discipulis de consummacione seculi dixit eis · Cum uideritis abhominationem desolacionis ·
ue pregnantibus 7 nutrientibus in illis diebus · Erunt enim tribulationes tales · quales non fuerunt ab ini
cio creature quam condidit deus usque nunc · neque fient & reliqua
Leofa men Vre drihtines apostoli axodon hine sylfne embe þissere weorlde endunge · Þa sæde he
heom · þæt swylce earfoðnesse · 7 swylce drecednessæ scylan on weorlde ær þam ende wurðan · swylce næfre ær
ne wurdan · ne næfre æft ne wurðað · And þæt godspel cwæð · Waðam wifum þe ðenne temæð · 7 on þam earmen
lice time heora cild fedæð · La nyde hit sceal on weorlde for folces synnan yfelan swiðe · Nu is ðe time
þe paulus ðe apostol i fyrn fore sæde · He sæde þam biscope timotheo · þæt on þam ende nextan dagum ðissere
weorlde beoð frecenlice tida for monnæ synnæ · 7 men þonne lufiæð alles to swiðe þas swicolen weorld · 7 beoð
ofer grædige weorld gestreonæ · 7 beoð þurh ofer wruda alles to rance · 7 alles to wlonce · 7 to gylpgeorne ·
ant on modignesse to swiðe ahofene · 7 beoð huxlice godcundnessa hyrwenda · 7 boclare leande 7 unriht
lufigende · 7 heo beoð swicolæ on dædum · 7 lease on wordum · 7 buton treowðu for scyldegode on weorcum · Heo
folgiæð heora lustum 7 monig fealde sunnum · 7 cnawe ðe ðe cunne · nu is ðe timæ þæt ðeos weorld is i menged
mid monigfealde mane · 7 mid felafealde facne · 7 þa ðe beoð swicoleste · þa ðinc gæð wærreste · 7 þa ðæ
yfel cunnon hiwian to gode · 7 unsoð to soðe · þurh lytigne list wrencg · þa þuncæð wisæ · 7 þæs hit is
þe wurse · wide on weorlde · al swa þæt god spel cwæð Quoniam habundabit iniquitas · refrigesc& caritas multorum ·
þæt is forðan ðe unriht weaxað· soð lufe colæð · Ne lufæð mon god nu · ne godes lage gymeþ ne his lare
ne lysteð · swa swa mon sceolde · ac unriht rixoð to swiðe on weorld · 7 þæt is i sene on monigfealde wisan ·
gecnawe ðe ðe wyle · oððe cunne · La mycel wæs ðeo æhtnes þe cristene þoledan iu ær on weorlde
oft ant i lome þurh wælreowe man swican wide 7 side · 7 hure hit sceal heonon forð monigfealdre
wurðan · nu deofel sylf his mægenes mot wealdan 7 deofles bearn swa swiþlice moten bilewite bregian
Oft ær wæs monigfeald æhtnes · næfre þeah þam ilic ðe æfter þissum gyt bið · hit wæs oft ær þæt godes
halgan fela wundra þurh godes mihte openlice wrohtan · on gemang þan ðe heo ehtnesse þoledon
and þurh ðet monigne mon gebettan · ac hit ne bið na swa on antecristes timan · Ne magon
þenne halige men on ðam timen ænige tacna openlice wurcan · ac scylan þolian eal þæt heom
mon to deþ · Ne god þenne ane hwile his mihtæ ne his wundræ sylf nele cuðan · swa he oft ær
dyde · ac let þene deofel ante crist rabbian · 7 wedan sume hwile · 7 þa ðe him fylstæð · þæt is gog
7 magog · þæt beoð þa mancyn þe alexander beclysde binnan munt clysan · Ða getacniæð
alle deofles limæ · þæt beoð alle þa ðe deofles weorc wyrcð · 7 unriht lufiæð · 7 antecristes fultu
142
mæs weorðaþ awær on weorlde · He bið mennisc mon · ac he bið þeah mid deofles gaste al afylled · And ðe i sægene
feond wurcð ðurh deofles cræft fela wunderlice tacnæ · 7 ðurh dreocræft monig fealde dwimeræ · 7 feorðe healf
gear he ricsæð ofer moncynn · 7 mid his scincræftum mæst monnæ be swicæð þe æfre ær ðurh ænig þing beswi--
cen wurde · 7 þa ðe he elles mid his lotwrencum bepæcen ne mæg þa he wyle ðreatian · 7 egeslice wyldan·
7 earmlice pinigen on monigfealde wisan · 7 neadungæ nydan þæt heo gebugan to his unlaran · He aginð
leogen deoflice swyðe · 7 ætsæcð cristes · 7 cwæð þæt he sylf beo godes agen bearn · 7 gebringað on dwylde alles
to monige · And god him ðafeð þæt for monne gewruhtum þæt he sume hwile mot wodlice dærian forþan ðe men
beoð þurh synnæ swa swiðe forwrohte · þæt deofel mot openlice heom fandian hu fela he forspannan mage
to ecan forwurde · And þa ðe swa sælige ðonne wurðaþ þæt heo on rihte geleafan anredlice wurð wuniæn
wyllað · þa scylan þolian ehtnesse þa mæstan þe æfre ær on weorolde ænige men ðoledon · 7 eac mycle ma
ran þonne æfre ær ahwær gewurdan · oððon æfter þam æfre æft ge weorðe · Ac se bið i sælig ðe þenne
ne awacæð forþan ræþe æfter ðam witolice heom bið toweard þurh godes mihte · ece frofer · La hwylc
wundor bið þeah ðe mennisce deofol synfullum mote derian heardlice ðone god i ðafæð þæt he mot
on his agene halgum swylc wundor gewurcan · þæt enoc 7 helias þurh ðone ðeodfeond i martyrode
wurðaþ · þe god sylfe fela hund wintræ mid sawla 7 lichoman geheold ær to þam anum · þæt heo þenne
scoldan mid heora lare folce gebyrgan · þæt hit all ne forwurde endemes · ætgædere · þurh ðone
deofel þe alle men bregeð · 7 all:: world derfeþ · Nis þe mon on life þe mage oððe cunne swa yfel
hit asecgan swa hit sceal ge weorðan · on þam deofellice timæn · Ne burhð þonne broðor oþrum hwilan · ne
fæder his bearnum · ne þæt bearn his agene fæder · ne þe sibb þam sibban ðe ma ðe fremedan · 7 þeod
scipæs winnæð and sacæð heom betweonan foræn to þan timan · þæt ðis sceal gewurðan · Eac sceal a
springan wide · 7 side · sacu · 7 clacu · hol 7 hæte · 7 rupera reaflac · here 7 hungor · bryne · 7 blodgyte ·
7 stranglice sturunge · stric · 7 steorfæ · 7 fela ungelimpæ · And monigfealde tacne beoð wide i sawe--
ne · on sunnon · 7 on monen · 7 on mistlican tunglan · 7 fela cunne egesan i wurðað on eorðan ·
folce to heort gryre · 7 to egeslicen fære · on monigfealde wisan · And all hit for wurde gif god
ne scyrte þæs ðeowscaþan lif dagas þe raþor þurh his mihtæ · Ac for þare geborege þe him beoð
i corene · 7 þe he habben wyle i healden · 7 i holpen · he for deþ ðonne þeodfeond · 7 on hælle grund
þonon forð besenceþ · mid allum þam gengum þe him ær fylgidon 7 his unlare to swiðe lyfdon ·
Ðonne wurð godes dom rihtlice to scaden · And þa ðonne witolice þa ðe nu god lufiæð · 7 godes
lage fylgieð · 7 godes lare oft 7 gelome geornlice lystæð · 7 heom wæl healdæð · 7 andredlice
þurhwuniæð on rihte geleafan forð oððet heora ende · þa sceolan habban ece ædlean of heofen
licre murhðe mid gode sylfum æfter ðam dome · 7 mid his halgum þonon forð æfre · Amen ·
**Eala mycel wæs ðeo godnes þe toweard wæs allum moncynne to hælpe 7 to frofre · þa þa crist
142b
us wæs toweard · ðurh menniscnesse geburde · 7 mucel þeo yfelnesse þe monnum is toweard gebide þare yrmðe
þe ðe hit abide · Crist wæs alre bearna bæst i boren · ðe æfre i boren wurde · 7 antecrist bið alræ ðare bearnæ
wyrst on ðas weorld i boren þe ær oððe æfter æfre gewurde oððe geweorþe · Nu sceal hit nyde yfelian
swiðe · forþan ðe hit neolæcð georne his time · al swa hit i writen is · 7 gefyrn wæs iwitegod · Post mille
annos soluetur sathanas · þæt is on englisc · Æ:fter þusendum gearum bið sathanas unbunden · Ðusend geara
7eac ma is nu agan syððan crist wæs mid mannum on mennisce hiwe · 7 nu beoð sathanasses bendæs
unslopene · and antecristes time is wel gehende · 7 þi hit is on weorlde aswa leng swa wacre · Men beoð
swicole 7 world is ðe wurse 7 þæt dæræþ allum 7 huru hit sceal hefigan heonon forð þam godum · 7 þam
unbeala fullum · nu ða yfelan 7 þa swicolon swa oferlice swiðe brædað on weorlde · ongean þæt meste
yfel ðe monnum is toweard þæt is ðe ðeodfeond antecrist sylfæ ·
leofa men · Understandeð georne þæt ge rihtlice 7 wærlice þæt healdan þæt eow mæst þearf is · to healdenne · þæt is rihtne cristendom· Omnis qui
secunðum cristiane professionis rectitudinem · aut non uidit aut aliter docet anticristus · 7 reliqua · forþam ælc þare
þe ongean þæt to swiðe dæð · oððon oðerne ongean þæt lærð ðe his cristendom to gebureþ ælc þæræ bið
to anticristes limæ i teald · Anticristus is on læden i cwædon contrarius cristo · þæt is on englisc godes wiðer
sace · He bið godes wiðer sacæ · þe godes lage 7 lare forlæt · 7 þurh deofles lare · of ðam deþ þe his cristen
dom to gebureþ · 7 on synnum hine sylfne to swiðe befuleþ · oððe oðerne mon on synnæ be lædeþ · And
þeah þæt beo þæt fela monnæ antecrist sylfne næfre his eagum ne geseo · to fela is þeh his limæ þe mon
wide nu i seon mæg · 7 ðurh heora yfel to cnawen mæg alswa hit on þam godspelle iræde is · Surgent
enim pseudo cristi · & reliqua · Wide hit i wurð þæt up arisæð lease ligeræs · 7 beoð swæslice swicole · 7 ða
monige men amyrræð · 7 on gedwylde bringæð · And swa mycel ærfoðnes · ge wurð on monige
wisan gyt wide on weorlde þæs ðe bec sæcgað þurh deofles bearn þe unriht dreogæð · swa næfre
ær on weorlde ne gewearð · for þam þæt mæste yfel cymæð to monnum on ante cristes timan þonne
he sylf cymð þe æfre ær on weorlde wurde · 7 us þuncæð þæt hit beo þam time swiðe gehende · Nu
is mycel neod allum godes bydelum · þæt heo godes folc warnian i lome wið þene egesan þe monnum is
toweard · þy les ðe heo unwærre weorþan areodade · 7 þonne to rædlice þurh deofel biswicene · Ac
sacerda gehwylc on his scrif scire þæt hit mon i hyre oft 7 i lome þi læs ðe hit i wurðe þæt ðurh lar
læste godes folc losige · And þeah ðet gewurðe þæt ure ænig þe nu leofæð þenne ne libbæ · þeah we
habbæð neode þæt we godcundæ heorda warnian nu georne hu heo ðam deofle antecriste sylfan
wærlycost magon ðonne wiðstandan þenne he his wodescin widost to brædeþ · And uton war
nian us eac swa wið his unlare nu swiðe georne · God us i scylde wið þone egesan · 7 he us geryme
to þare ecan murhþe · þe ðam is igearowed þe his willan wurcæð · Ðer is ece blis · 7 æfre bið · in
alræ worolda weorld a buton ende Amen ·
Leofa men us is mycel neod þæt we wærre beon þæs
143
egeslican timan ðe toweard is · Nu bið swiðe raðe antecristes timæ · þæs ðe we wenan magon · 7 eac georne
witan · 7 þæt bið ðe ægeslicesta timæ þe æfre gewearð syððan þeos weoruld ærest isceapen wæs · He bið seolf
deofel · 7 ðeah mennisc mon i boren · Crist is soð god 7 soð mon · 7 antecrist bið soþlice deofel 7 mon · þurh
crist com alle middan earde hælp · 7 frofre · 7 þurh antecrist cymð ðe mæstæ grure · 7 ðe mæstæ ærfoðne[s]
þe æfre ær on weorlde i worden wearð · And moncyn for wyrde forðrihte gif god his dagas ne scyrte·
Ac god his dagæs gescyrt for þare þingæ þe him gecorene beon · 7 he ihealden habben wile · 7 ðeh on
þam fæce þe he bið he deþ swa mycel to yfele swa æfre ær ne wearð · Æ:lcne mon he wyle awendan
of rihte geleafan 7 of cristendome · 7 bespannan to his unlare gif he mæg · And god hit him ge
ðafæð sume hwile · for twam þingum · An is þæt men beoð þurh synnæ swa forð forwruhte þæt heo beoð
þæs wæl wurðe · þæt deofel openlice gefandiga þenne hwa him fulfylegean wile · Oþer is þæt god wyle
þæt þa ðe swa gesælig beoð · þæt heo on rihte geleafan ðurhwuniæð · 7 þam deofle anrædlice wiðstan
dað · he wyle þæt ða beon raþe amerede 7 i clænsode of synnæ · þurh þam mycle æhtnesse 7 þurh
þare martyrdom þe heo ðenne þoliæð · forðam nis nan mon þæt ne beo synful · And ælc mon sceal
sar þolian oððe her oððe ælles hwær · be þam ðe he þurð synne earnæð · 7 þi bið þeo æhtnesse
þonne godum monnum swa stið forþan heo sceolan beon raþe i clænsode 7 amerede ær þe mycle
dom cyme · Ða ðe weron forð ferede for hund gearum oððe gyt fyrnor þæt þa magon beon i clæn--
sode · We moten nyde þæt stiðre þolian gif we clæne beon scylan þenne ðe dom cymð nu we
þæne fyrst næbbæð þe ða hæfdan þe wið foren us wæron · Beþence gehwa hine sylfne be þam
ðe he wille ne cymæð ure æfre ænig to godes rice ær we beon æfre ælcere synne swa clæne
amerede swa æfre ænig gold mæg beon clænost amerod · Leofæ men god i ðafeð þam deofle
antecriste ðet he mot æhttan godra monne forþan ðe heo scylon swa ic ær cwæð þurh ða æh--
nesse beon i clænsode 7 soððan clæne faren to heofene rice · Þa þonne ðe his leasunge i lyfæð
þam he burhð her on weorlde · 7 þa he wurðaþ her · ac heo sceolan raþe æfter þam ecelice for
wyrðan · 7 aa wuniæn syððan mid him on ðare sweartan helle grunde · Ðe ge sægenlice deo--
fel wyrcð fela wundræ · 7 sægð þæt he seolf god beo · 7 mid his gedwimerum mæst ælcne mon be
swicæð · And þa ðe he elles beswican ne mæg þa he wule neadungæ nydan gif he mæg ðet
heo godes ætsacan · 7 to him bugan · Gif heo ðenne þæt nellæð · ðonne scylon heo æhtnesse
mycle · 7 earmlicne deaþ þolian · Eala gesælig bið þeah ðe þe to þam anræde bið þæt he for
þam ne awacað ac witodlice þæræ bið ælles to lyt þe he ne beswice · oððe ðurh his searæ
cræftæs · oððe þurh ðone g[r]yre þe he on moncyn set · Ure drihten crist gehælde felæ
on life þe unhale weron · 7 ðe deofel antecrist geb[r]ocæð 7 untrumæð þa ðe ær hale weron
7 he nænne gehælen ne mæg buton he hine ærest awyrde · Ac syððan he ðonne mon
143b
gebrocod hæfð syððan he mæg don swylce he hine gehæle gif he geswicð þæs ðe he ær ðam men to yfele
dyde · He bið alle unwrencaful · þonne beswicð he swiðe felæ mannæ þurh ðet þæt he gebrocæð monigne
mon dihlice · 7 ge hælð æft æt foran monnum þer heo onlociæð · þenne i seoð heo hwæt he þonne dæþ
7 nytan na hwæt he ær dyde · ælc yfe he mæg don 7 ælc he deþ · He deþ þæt fyr cumð ufene swylce
hit of heofenum come 7 he mid þam fela forbernð ealswa he dyde hwilon iobes æhta · Ac ðe þe for ðæs
fyres ege to him buhð he sceal aa on helle on ece brune wuniæn · Utan habben anrædne geleafan
7 fæstræde þanc to ure drihtne · þonne ðeah hit gebyrige þæt we ðare yrmþe bidan sceolon 7 on þisse
life earfoða adrygan · þeah gif we ne awaciæð ac þurhwuniæð on rihte geleafan · 7 ælcne hæþen
scipe forhogiæð god us foresceawæð ece ræste · On godes name ic bidde þæt cristenra monna gehwylc
hine seolfne georne beþence 7 geornlice to gode buge 7 fram ælcne hæþenscipe 7 synnum ge
cerre 7 earnige þæt he gemanan habban mote on heofenæ rice mid þam de leofæð 7 rixæð
aa buton ende Amen ;